Primary Appraisal Definition Psychology

Primary assessment is an assessment of the significance of an event to a person, including whether it is a threat or opportunity. The secondary assessment then takes into account the ability to cope with or exploit the situation. Many current theories of emotion now place the emotion evaluation component at the forefront of defining and investigating emotional experience. However, most contemporary psychologists who study emotions accept a working definition that recognizes that emotion is not just an evaluation, but a complex and multifaceted experience with the following components: Others have designed stress in a way that emphasizes the physiological responses that occur in the face of demanding or threatening situations (for example.B increased excitement). These conceptualizations are called response-based definitions because they describe stress as a response to environmental conditions. For example, endocrinologist Hans Selye, a famous stress researcher, once defined stress as the “body`s response to any request, whether caused by or leading to pleasant or unpleasant conditions” (Selye, 1976, p. 74). Selye`s definition of stress is based on a response, as it conceptualizes stress primarily in terms of the body`s physiological response to any requirement imposed on it. Neither stimulus nor response-based definitions provide a complete definition of stress. Many of the physiological responses that occur when faced with difficult situations (for example. B, an acceleration in heart rate) can also occur in response to things that most people wouldn`t consider really stressful, such as .B. Receiving unexpected good news: an unexpected promotion or increase.

Specifically, he identified two key factors in an essay in which he discusses the cognitive aspects of emotion: “First, what is the nature of the cognitions (or assessments) that underlie distinct emotional responses (para. B example, fear, guilt, sadness, joy, etc.)? Second, what are the previous determining conditions of these cognitions? (Lazarus, Averill, & Opton (1970, p. 219)[10] These two aspects are absolutely crucial in defining the reactions that result from the initial emotions that underlie the reactions. In addition, Lazarus specified two main types of assessment methods that are central to the assessment method: 1) primary assessment to determine the significance of the event to the organism, and 2) secondary assessment to assess the body`s ability to cope with the consequences of the event. [10] These two types go hand in hand, as the importance of the event is noted, while the following evaluates the coping mechanisms that Lazarus divided into two parts: direct actions and cognitive reassessment processes. Figure 2. When a person encounters a stressor, they assess their potential threat (primary assessment) and then determine whether effective options are available to manage the situation. Stress is likely to occur when a stressor is perceived as extremely threatening or threatening and few or no effective coping options are available.

If you feel something instead of just reacting quickly, think about the assessment you made that led you to that feeling. Changing the rating can change how you feel. Stress assessment refers to the process by which individuals assess and manage a stressful event. This is the individual assessment of the event and not the event itself. People differ in how they interpret what happens to them and in their coping options. Stress assessment is carried out in two forms, primary assessment and secondary assessment, which should be considered as two stages of assessment or assessment. These two types of assessments are not mutually exclusive; they work together to complete the evaluation process. If a person deems an event to be harmful and believes that the demands imposed by the event exceed the resources available to manage or adapt to it, the person will subjectively experience a state of stress. On the other hand, if the same event is not considered harmful or threatening, it is unlikely to experience stress. According to this definition, environmental events trigger stress responses by the way they are interpreted and the meanings attributed to them. In short, stress is largely in the eye of the viewer: it is not so much about what happens to you, but about how you react (Selye, 1976). Roseman`s theory of judgment states that there are certain components of evaluation that interact to evoke different emotions (Roseman, 1996).

[17] An evaluation component that influences the emotion expressed is the coherence of the reasons. When a situation is assessed as incompatible with one`s goals, the situation is perceived as inconsistent and motivating and often triggers a negative emotion such as anger or regret (Roseman, 1996). [17] A second component of judgment that influences a person`s emotional response is the assessment of responsibility or responsibility (Roseman, 1996). [17] One person may hold himself or herself and another person or group accountable. A person may also believe that the situation is due to coincidence. A person`s assessment of responsibility influences the emotion felt. For example, if you feel responsible for a desirable situation, pride can be a lived emotion. People`s emotions are also influenced by their secondary assessment of situations. Secondary assessment is an assessment of people`s resources and coping skills (Lazarus, 1991). [12] One aspect of secondary assessment is an assessment by an individual for whom one should be held accountable.

A person may hold himself, another person or a group of other persons responsible for the situation in question. A harmful event and a beneficial event can be blamed (Lazarus, 1991). [12] In addition, a person may also consider the situation to be random. How people see who or what should be held accountable guides and guides their efforts to cope with the emotions they are experiencing. Another aspect of secondary assessment is a person`s potential for adaptation. Coping potential is the potential to use problem-oriented coping strategies or emotionally-based coping strategies to cope with an emotional experience. (Smith & Kirby, 2009). [5] Problem-based adaptation refers to the ability to act and change a situation to make it more consistent with its objectives (Smith and Kirby, 2009).

Thus, a person`s belief in their ability to make a problem-oriented adjustment affects the emotions they experience in the situation. On the other hand, emotional-centered coping refers to the ability to cope with or adapt to the situation when circumstances do not align with one`s goals (Smith and Kirby, 2009). Again, the emotions people experience are influenced by how they perceive their ability to cope with emotion. The fourth component of secondary assessment is future expectation (Lazarus, 1991). [12] Future expectation refers to expectations of a change in the motivational congruence of a situation (for whatever reason). Thus, an individual may believe that the situation will change favorably or unfavorably (Lazarus, 1991). Future expectations affect the emotions triggered during a situation, as well as the coping strategies used. The perception of a threat triggers a secondary assessment: assessing the options available to manage a stressor, as well as perceptions of the effectiveness of these options (Lyon, 2012) (Figure 2). As you may remember from what you have learned about self-efficacy, a person`s belief in their ability to perform a task is important (Bandura, 1994). A threat tends to be considered less catastrophic if one believes that something can be done about it (Lazarus & Folkman, 1984).

Imagine two middle-aged women, Robin and Maria, doing breast self-examinations one morning and each woman notices a lump in the lower part of her left breast. Although both women see the breast nodule as a potential threat (primary appreciation), their secondary assessments differ significantly. Looking at the breast nodule, some of the thoughts running through Robin`s head are, “Oh my God, I could get breast cancer! What happens if the cancer has spread to the rest of my body and I can`t recover? What happens if I have to have chemotherapy? I`ve heard that the experience is terrible! What happens if I have to quit my job? My husband and I will not have enough money to pay the mortgage. Oh, it`s just terrible. I can`t stand it!¬†On the other hand, Maria thinks, “Hmm, maybe that`s not good. Although these things usually turn out to be benign, I need to have them checked. If it turns out to be breast cancer, there are doctors who can take care of it because medical technology is quite advanced today. I`m going to have a lot of different options, and I`m going to be fine.¬†Obviously, Robin and Maria have different views on what could turn out to be a very serious situation: Robin seems to think that little could be done about it, while Maria believes that in the worst case, a number of options would be available that are likely to be effective. .